properties of sound.
something has to vibrate in order for sound to happen.
water and light spread different then sound
sound is a longitudel wave.
when air molecues come together its called copression. when they sepererate its called rarefraction.
the distance from on peak to the next is known as its weave leanthh.
the distance of its wave leanth is its pitch.
3 componets of sound pitch loudness and tamber.
pitch is determened how many times you go from a rarefraction to a compression.
forms frequency how many times this happens in minite.
frequency is measeured in hertz.
closer the peaks the higher thepitch
farther the peaks lower the pitch.
you double the frequency to get the octive.
range of human hearing = 20hz to 20,000 Hz (20khz)
loudness is volume. its the height of a wave form, the amplitude
softest thing u can hear is 0 decibles
when u recird u record it in negitive decibles.
ultimate thereshold of pain is 120 decibles
Timbre is the tone color of sound that is determinted by the volume of the different wave forms present in a sound
fudementtle frequency is the percieved pitch.
Sign wave is the fundalmental frequency by itself
square wave is all the odd harmonacts
triangle wave odd harmonics but they drop off much sooner
sawtooth wave has every harmonic present
building block for synths
white noise every frewuency present
Pink noise tapers offover time
high pitch is usally percieved as being louder
you get a combination of all thwe waves and u get a third wave


Fourier Analysis, named after the nineteenth century French mathematician Jean Baptiste Fourier, enables one to break down complex periodic waveforms into their basic components, which happen to be sine waves of various frequencies, amplitudes, and phases. The opposite method, combining sine waves of various frequencies, amplitude, and phase to create complex periodic waveforms, is Fourier Synthesis.
A complex waveform is the result of combining the instantaneous amplitudes of two (or more) sine waves.

A musician synthesizing sound by combining frequencies of various amplitudes and phases is working with a process called additive synthesis.


Obviously, the less rounding-off, the better the analog signal can be represented in the digital domain. Less rounding-off means more resolution, and a system with more resolution will always produce better sound. The resolution of a system is usually described with terms like "8-bit" or "16-bit". An 8-bit system has 256 values of amplitude and a 16-bit system has 65,536 values of amplitude. Clearly, a 16-bit recording would yield more accurate results.

In some cases a waveform does not have a recurring amplitude pattern. A waveform which does not consist of a repeating single cycle is called a non-periodic waveform.
It is possible that the amplitude of one wave can be greater than another, even though the duration of each cycle is the same. The amplitude of a sound contributes greatly to its perceived volume. In general, the greater the amplitude of a wave, the louder you sense the sound to be.
Sometimes it is useful to be able to describe various parts of a single waveform cycle. The termphase is used to specify a particular point in time on the waveform, or to compare the relative position in time of two waveforms.

1. Sound

The air we breathe is actually an elastic medium that will yield to certain changes and then return to a state of equilibrium. Because of this physical property, sound is created when air molecules are disturbed and set in motion. This disturbance occurs when an object, called asound source, vibrates. The air molecules around that object are forced into other molecules, resulting in areas of denser and less dense air that radiate away from the source as waves of acoustic energy.
Finally, our ears perceive the fluctuations in air pressure and transmit these sensations to our brain, which interprets them as sound.



2. Sound as a Representation

In traditional music, a musician touches and manipulates and works directly with an instrument to create a desired sound. This takes different forms on different instruments. The pianist depresses keys on a piano, the violinist draws a bow across a string, a percussionist strikes the head of a drum, and so on. In each of these cases the musician interacts directly with a vibrating sound source.



The environment in which a musician shapes and manipulates representations of sound may loosely be called an electronic music system. The actual tools available can vary widely from system to system, with each system having its own virtues and limitations. In general, though, these systems operate on the same principles of conversion and representation outlined in "Sound as a Representation".
Some systems "capture" sound with a microphone, allowing the musician to pull the sound into the realm where it becomes a representation of sound that may be shaped and manipulated and then turned back into acoustic energy--or sound.

Example 3-1: Some systems "capture" sound with a microphone allowing the musician to pull the sound into the realm where it becomes a representation of sound that may be shaped and manipulated and then turned back into acoustic energy - or sound.
Some electronic music systems are not able to "capture" outside sound but instead have "preset" representations of sound that can be manipulated by the user. The process is identical to the previous example but with the first two parts removed.

Diagram 3-2: Preset representations of sound.
The shaping and manipulating of representations of sound by an electronic music system is known as synthesis. There are many ways to "synthesize" sound. The methods vary widely and depend on the system being employed. Even so, fundamental concepts and techniques are shared by many synthesis environments in which a musician may work.
The term synthesizer refers to instruments that produce user-designed analog or digital representations of sound that are subsequently changed to acoustic energy. A synthesizer can be an instrument dedicated exclusively to sound synthesis or a computer programmed to synthesize sound.
When an instrument represents sound as voltages, that instrument is an analog synthesizer.

Example 3-3: An analog synthesizer represents sound as a fluctuation in voltage, which can be sent to an amplifier, and then to a speaker where it is converted to acoustic energy.
If an instrument represents sound as a series of discrete numbers, that instrument is a digital synthesizer.

Example 3-4: A digital synthesizer represents sound as a series of discrete numbers, which are converted to an analog signal just before they are output from the synthesizer.
A computer that carries out the same tasks as a synthesizer is producing computer music. A software program in the computer is the synthesizer which, like a digital synthesizer, represents sound in a digital form. An analog or digital synthesizer, or a computer running a sound generating program, can be called a synthesis system or synthesis environment.
Electronic Music Interactive uses electronic music as a general term to describe any music created with synthesizers, computers, or related instruments. Although there are many small differences among analog synthesizers, digital synthesizers, and computers used as synthesizers, the primary difference lies in the way sound is represented in each system during the synthesis process. Despite these differences, however, the concepts and techniques governing each are basically the same. What follows is a survey of the fundamental knowledge necessary for work in any electronic music system.



THe shape of the wave is sine.
When i changed the pitch the wave forms got closer together... they are shorter.
It forms a trapazoid wave thing and gets louder its a sine wave that has been clipped. The roundness went away.
you here a distinct click happen
when you lower the pitch the wave leanth becomes farther away and you here a lot of clicking

Wave 2.wav

Zoom in and identify the wave shape.
It is definitly a square wave and therer is more frequency.

Does this wave sound different than the first? If so How?

yes this wave sounds clearer then the first one I heard. Maybe because it was so lound and aggrssive.

Wave 3.wav

Zoom in and identify the wave shape.
this is a sawtooth wave.

Describe the sound quality of this wave.
The quality is not as clear or pure as the other two waves.

Why do the three waveforms sound different?
They are different waves in each one, meaning there are also different harmonics so thus getting different sounds.

Wave 4.wav

Can you explain why the shape of this wave is the way it is?
THis does not really have a shape or a pater. the waves are all over the place createing static.

Using the Effects Menu, fade the sound clip in at the beginning and fade it out at the end.
How is the wave shape altered?
the waves get smaller and smaller meaning the loudness is going down untill there is none

With that wave still open, select analyze from the dropdown menu.

What information is provided on this graph?
itshowpretty much all of the dat igoing into the sound of the graph. like the frequecy

What observations can you make about the sound analysis?

It sounds like a beach


Test. THe air moluculse get pushed together to form areas of high pressures resulting from a vibrating source the squishing of mouluces would be called?

when the molecues are pulled apart this phenomenonn is known as

the wave motion of sound travels in what manner

water and light travel in this manner

what is the polarity of a compresion, positive

3 componets of sound, loudness pitch and timbre

the number of the cycles a wave makes per second is unclassified as the blank of a sound. (frequency)

two waves that are close together higher or lower pitches then those that are farther apart? (closer the higher)

Describe the acusticall properties of the dopler effect.
moveing sound sound source catching up to itsself as they get closer together as the sounds pass you the waves get farther apart.

the range of hearing for the normal human is blank to blank ( 20hz to 20khz)

double the cycles per second of pitch your going to get an octive higher.

the height of a wave form will determine the blank that is measured in the unit of blank (amplitude measured in decibles)

what is the volume measurement of the thersesh old of pain (120 decibles)\

what is the unit measurement of the softest sound that a human can here. (0)

what acoustical event occers when an object travels fater then the speed of sound (sonic boom)

If sound is amplified too much the top of the wave will be cut off, called (clipping)

Why does a c;arinet sound sounds different then a trumpet. (the harmonics in the sound also known as timbre)

Whats a fundalment frequency (the original frequency no harmonics present)

if the fundelmental frequncy is 300 hertz what is the third octive...900

What harmonics are present in the triangle wave? alll the odd ones

are there harmonics in a sine wave.... no

what frequencys are presents in white noise... all of them.

pink noise... alll but taper off.